Research on the Essential Security and Reliability of Refining Enterprise Equipment

I. Introduction

In 2005-2016, my country’s refining enterprises frequently occurred, causing high concern. On November 13, 2005, China’s petroleum Jilin Petrochemical Company barefriens were exploded and triggered Songhua River cross-border water pollution incident; September 8, 2011, Shanghai Sike Petrochemical Co., Ltd. Supercritical The valve cover and the valve body of the ethylene conveying pipe are suddenly separated, ethylene leakage causes explosion and fire; November 22, 2013, China Petrochemical Co., Ltd. Pipeline Storage and Transportation Branch East Yield Oil Pipeline Crude Oil Leakage Explosion; On April 21, 2015, China Petrochemical Yangzi Petrochemical Co., Ltd. Olefin Factory Ethylene glycol T-430 Tower exploded. The accident of large refining equipment is frequent, not only the economic loss is huge, but also has a serious social or international impact on the state [1]. At the end of 2016, my country’s refining capacity has reached 7.5 × 108 T / A, of which 24 of 1 × 107 T / A-class refinery, total refining capacity reached 3.14 × 108 T / A, accounting for 42% of national oil refining capabilities. Large-scale, high speed, automation, and intelligent refining equipment manufacturing become national strategies [2]. While large equipment creates huge economic benefits, once an accident occurs, it will cause a huge economic loss to enterprises in production. The essential safety and supervision intelligence of refining equipment is an important role in the safe and reliable refining company.

At home and abroad, the concept of essential safety and supervision intelligence has been largely expanded, and related research is carried out in terms of equipment essential and reliable operation and reliability design / manufacturing. Xu Zhengquan et al. [4] analyzed the status quo and existing problems of domestic essential safety management research, and proposed basic ideas based on the essential safety management research of interactive safety management theory. Wang Qinfang [5] According to the actual needs of industrial development, the company’s essential safety models including personnel, machinery, work environment, management and cultural five modules. Wu Zongzhi et al [6] integrates the essential security ideas and "Program – Execution – Improvement" (PDCA) management mode, which proposes a working-based PDCA management model. Baijing [7] By analyzing the harm of equipment and its control principles and the way to implement equipment safety, the safety management of the equipment should be the safety management of the equipment should be the essential safety and equipment use process. WOO [8] describes the necessity of reliability embedded design processes and its method development, it is recommended to introduce new parameter life acceleration test (ALT) into a reliability method. Perng et al. [9] studied in supervision intelligence, two types of intelligent regulatory controllers, performance reached or exceeded linear control restriction, better than fuzzy controller and nerve controller. MIAO et al [10] studied complex and variable industrial control systems, summarized the computer, communication, artificial intelligence, information and decision-making technologies of intelligent industrial control, and summarized the development trend of intelligent industrial control. DAI et al [11] proposes a signal selection and reliability assessment method based on conditional information based on state monitoring reliability analysis method.

This article is based on the status quo of refining equipment in nature and reliability and supervision and intelligent research. Challenges; countermeasures, measures, and recommendations for the essential safety and reliability and supervision intelligence; finally gave birth to domestic related engineering applications.

Second, the essence of refining equipment is safe and reliable and the connotation and characteristics of supervision intelligence

(1) The essence of refining equipment is safe and reliable and the connotation of intelligence

Foreign nature security theory research focuses on systematic reliability theory, more important than technical factors, and research ideas gradually designed from safety evaluation, and the system is improved, thereby increasing system overall safety [12]. Essential safety refers to the use of organizational architecture design, technology, management, standardization and culture. Under the premise of protecting people, things and environment, through the basic interaction relationship between the system in operation, standardize interaction relationships and Cultural interaction, from the source prevention system in the operation, the system is not harmonious, invalid interaction, and the system of effective interaction, the II effectively interaction, thereby ensuring system security, reliable equipment, comprehensive management and safety culture, ultimately Decreasing long-term prevention of accidents [4]. Essential safety runs through various stages of the full life cycle of design, manufacturing, operation, and maintenance: the design phase adopts intrinsically safe technology, pays a safety factor, and uses safety devices (fixed, interlock, control, trip and other forms) to achieve mechanization and Automation; implementation, assembly, testing and other standards to ensure the reliability of components; the control system design adopted in the operational stage should consider the operation mode of various homework, fault display, automatic monitoring, artificial intervention and other functions; The maintenance phase is achieved with Internet of Things monitoring, fault diagnosis, risk-based maintenance management and other technologies to achieve accurate maintenance, ensuring that the equipment is always reliable and available.

The connotation of the essential safety and reliable and regulatory intelligence can be defined as: the equipment reliability design and manufacturing is fundamentally, with risk management means as the core, to monitor control intelligent and information technology as support, realize real-time state perception of equipment, Status recognition and prediction, external environmental disturbance or self-fault adaptive adjustment control and autonomous maintenance and protection decision, ensuring reliable safety and human, machine, environmental harmony. Reliability Design / Manufacturing, Risk Management, Monitoring Control Intelligent and Informatization is 3 key elements that ensure safe and reliable equipment.

(2) The essence of refining equipment is safe and reliable and supervised intelligent characteristics

1. Design / manufacturing with reliability

The ability to complete the prescribed function in the specified time is reliability. Reliability design includes three aspects of quality, cost, reliability, optimization processes, the overall reliability of the product, as performance constraints, will produce a balanced design with reasonable safety phase [13]. Reliability Design / Manufacture refers to equipment design and manufacturing from the essential safety of the equipment to eliminate the potential defects and weak links of the equipment to prevent malfunctions to ensure that the technical activities taken by the predetermined inherent reliability requirements. The equipment running reliability is approximately 90% of the reliability design / manufacturing. Reliability design / manufacture can ensure the essential safety of the equipment, eliminate or reduce casualties, reduce equipment failures, improve equipment utilization, realize safety production; equipment design selection also chooses a reliable design / manufacturing guarantee product.

2. Core with risk management as the core of full life cycle

Risk management refers to the use of risk identification, risk analysis, risk quantitative calculation, reliability management to ensure normal, safe operating state [14]. To develop risk assessments such as reliability-centric maintenance (RCM), risk-based test (RBI), safety integrity level (SIL), to identify key factors affecting equipment reliable operation, using troubleshooting measures To develop reduction measures or one-time change tasks, improve equipment essential safety reliability. Risk management technology implements various stages of equipment design, construction, installation, operation, maintenance, and scrapping.

3. Monitoring and control use intelligent information to technical support

"Monitoring and Early Warning, Diagnosis and Prediction" becomes the development direction of equipment monitoring diagnosis. Using industrial interconnection, mobile interconnection, state monitoring and diagnosis, informationization cloud platform technology, links people and machines to the machine, and realize the reliability-centric maintenance, improve people’s work efficiency, and ensure the safety of the equipment.

4. Self-maintenance decision-making is achieved with comprehensive perception, status identification and prediction

Based on the RCM evaluation of refining equipment, the fault detectability analysis of high-risk fault mode is determined, and the fault feature sensitive parameters are determined, and the machine is installed to install various types of sensors to have fault sensation. "Brain", the brain ", and use Equipment health evaluation model, energy efficiency evaluation model, reliability evaluation and its corresponding evaluation performance standards, enabling machines to have status identification and predictive capabilities; let the machine connect network, make status identification and predictive information to fail over network; Maintenance decision-making knowledge base, independent decision-making maintenance content.

5. Adaptive adjustment control of external environmental disturbance or its own fault

Under the guidance of systemism, break the traditional professional barrier, learn from and transplant the "autonomous conditioning" treatment principle, integrated status monitoring, artificial intelligence, active and adaptive control, etc., study accident prevention and self-healing The process independently regulates, so that the refining enterprise equipment has failed self-healed, thereby greatly reduce faults and accidents, reducing downtime production losses.

6. The fault eradication task is an effective way

Equipment maintenance can only be maintained without increasing the reliability of equipment, and self-estro repair is to determine the best maintenance opportunities and maintenance content to avoid "insufficient maintenance" or "maintenance surplus". The fault eradication task is one of the important contents of autonomous maintenance and protection, for high-risk fault models, to conduct fault root analysis, formulating fault eradication measures, is an effective way to improve equipment inherent reliability [15].

Third, equipment essential safety and reliable and supervision intelligent development trends

(1) Equipment design and manufacturing development to intelligent direction

1. Digital design and simulation technology are important means

In digital integrated environments, the design and simulation of reliability and performance integration is carried out, and multi-mechanical, equipment, system-grade product, complicated environment, multi-machine correlation, complicated, complicated, multi-machine-related reliability analysis. , Life prediction, program optimization, etc., including multidisciplinary tool integration, test design, response surface coupling, reliability analysis, system reliability analysis, reliability optimization, durability analysis of 7 functional modules.

2. Mechanical equipment intelligence is a development trend

Today’s society uses intelligent technology, including a variety of intelligent production control systems, intelligent logistics systems, intelligent manufacturing systems, and the like. Process equipment self-perception, automatic recognition, automatic prediction, external disturbance adaptive adjustment, failure self-paying, etc. have typical intelligent features. Self-controlling facilities such as fluid machinery, joint protection, overload protection, etc., is the basis for intelligent control.

3. Intelligent manufacturing is a way to achieve

Intelligent manufacturing refers to information development under the full life cycle of the product and implements informatization under perceptual conditions. On the basis of modern sensing technology, network technology, automation technology, intelligent technology such as intelligent technology, through intelligent perception, human-machine interaction, decision-making and implementation technology, implementation, manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment intelligence, It is the depth integration and integration of information technology, intelligent technology and equipment manufacturing technology. Take advantage of the basis of networked manufacturing, digital manufacturing, integrating artificial intelligence and robot technology, forming interaction and depth integration of people, machines, and objects, making design, process, test simulation, production process, guarantee, etc. Intelligentization Become a reality [16, 17].

(2) Risk management technology will become an important support for equipment integrity management

1. Equipment integrity management is the development trend of equipment management

Equipment management mode develops from fault repair (BM), plan maintenance (TBM), status maintenance (CBM), risk-based maintenance (RBM) to asset integrity management (AIM). Integrity management throughout the performance of the full life cycle of equipment design, manufacturing, installation, operation, maintenance, scrap, is the mainstream development trend of the equipment management model of refining enterprises.

2. Risk management is the core of integrity management

Designational Stage Application Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), Hazard and Operational Analysis (HAZOP), Reliability / Availability Analysis (RAM), SIL and other risk assessment tools, identify risk factors in the design phase and use one-time change measures to ensure Equipment design
Essential is safe and reliable.

Operation, maintenance phase Using equipment failure analysis (FTA), root cause analysis (RCA) method identifies potential factors that cause equipment defects; static equipment application RBI technology for risk analysis and formulates inspection plan; dynamic equipment Apply RCM, RAM technology to reliability Analysis, formulation of inspection and maintenance strategy; instrument electrical application SIL technology for safety integrity rating analysis, formulate corresponding management strategies; operations use integrity operation window (iow) to set the device failure operation boundary, preventive and intervention equipment status deterioration Accidents happen to ensure safe operation of the equipment.

3. Risk management causes traditional equipment management model to turn from the institutional level to the technical level

Traditional equipment management relies on system specifications and clarifies how people want to manage equipment. Risk management starts from the technical level, and how to make equipment needs to manage the equipment safe and reliable, reduce repair resource consumption and improve the operating cycle of the device.

(3) Equipment monitoring will develop toward network, intelligent

Monitoring warning intelligence

Conventional monitoring alarms are prone to false alarms, virtual alarms, and repeated crossing multiple alarms. The development trend of monitoring early warning intelligence is shown in the replacement threshold threshold alarm mode, according to the operation of the equipment, the service period and other factors set the intelligent alarm line; the alarm is not only graded, but also gives the position of the alarm, the hazardous level and release of the alarm, delay the alarm Strategy method.

2. Monitoring diagnosis intelligent

Multiple parameters, large-capacity alternative single parameters monitoring, smooth operation monitoring and development to non-stationary operation monitoring, information integration, fusion, decomposition, purification, etc., and the threshold comparison of substitution single parameters) is the basis for monitoring the intelligent development of diagnosis. The development trend of monitoring and diagnosis intelligence is to implement automatic fault diagnosis, automatic fault prediction and residual life prediction.

3. Monitor diagnosis

Real-time online monitoring replacement regular monitoring and tour monitoring, distributed, networked monitoring replacement, which is the development trend of monitoring diagnosis. The new generation of information and communication technologies represented by Internet, cloud computing, and big data are active and developed rapidly. It has set off a new round of scientific revolution and industrial change in a global scale, making it an important force to promote economic and social development. Internet of Things can connect all ordinary objects that exercise independent features to the Internet, exchange information exchange, and communicate to achieve intelligent identification, positioning, tracking, monitoring, and management. From the global perspective, the Internet of Things Data Processing and Public Platform Service is in the ascending, and the Terminal Manufacturing and Application Services related to the Internet of Things are still growing during growth.

Do not rely on mechanism research, directly from the big data, it is also a trend of intelligent supervision of refining equipment. By using the object network, cloud computing, big data, the data mining, the data is classified, the data is carried out by statistics, online analysis, machine learning, pattern recognition, etc., the data classification, the rules, cluster, visual description, etc. Application, thereby implementing functionality of equipment fault identification, early warning and diagnostics, equipment health status online assessment. Some Internet companies have begun to use artificial intelligent technology to support refining companies to explore intelligent production, combined with multiple network technology guarantees, data exchange between equipment and manufacturing cloud data centers, providing monitoring intelligent data foundation for intelligent factories.

Based on the manufacturing service of industrial data and network, it is supported by cloud computing, data fusion processing and analysis, remote monitoring and diagnosis, establishing network remote status monitoring and diagnosis and logistics support systems, supporting operational modes, extended maintenance, lease And data analysis management, etc., thereby laying the technical foundation of the equipment in nature and reliability and supervision intelligence.

Fourth, my country’s refining equipment essential safety and reliability and supervision intelligent macro research

(1) my country’s refining equipment is safe and reliable and the existence of intelligent intelligence

Device reliability design / manufacturing, risk management, and intelligent monitoring of laws, regulations or rules are uncomfortable; the investigation of heavy accidents of equipment is often confused by trajectory.

Device reliability design / manufacturing, risk management and intelligent monitoring standards are lacking or uncommon; risk management, supervision intelligent employment personnel qualification have not certified systems, and employees have improved technology.

Equipment Purchase Low-cost bidding system cannot encourage the improvement of design / manufacturing quality, and it is difficult to promote the safety facilities required for safe and reliable equipment.

Equipment design / manufacturing monitoring control is not high, the technical level is relatively backward; the design institute, the product design of the manufacturer is relatively conservative, "in" source "lacks equipment failure detectability, adaptive regulatory and self-payment design.

In the device operation and maintenance management phase, some managers believe that the monitoring control of intelligent facility function "painting" is not valued; on the other hand, the degree of equipment monitoring control is less than user expectations. Two phenomena also exists.

The traditional idea of ??equipment management model is deeply rooted, RBI, RCM, SIL, HAZOP and other advanced mature management models are difficult to land root.

Device decision management relies on experience, leadership, lacks the awareness and ability to use equipment to run data, monitor diagnostic data, maintenance and maintenance data, etc. for scientific decisions.

The equipment is safe and reliable, and the equipment is not dare to operate, and the current situation of safety is universally existed in exchange efficiency.

(2) my country’s refining equipment in nature and reliability and supervision intelligence countermeasures and recommendations

At the national level, the legal, regulations or rules and regulations of the refining equipment design / manufacturing essential safety; the root of major accidents is the design / manufacture of defects, and they must be resident in relevant units.

Develop industry standards or regulations for refining equipment design / manufacturing, risk management, supervision intelligence, and establish regular reviews, update mechanisms; based on best possible technology, improve the participation of enterprises in the standard development process; Implementation of qualification certification systems, improve risk assessment, monitor the authority of diagnostic conclusions.

From the intrinsic demand for equipment in nature, reliability and supervision intelligence, improve equipment and its components procurement management system; equipment operation efficiency, no faulty period, fault average repair time, annual maintenance cost, accident safety impact, environmental impact, etc. Important evaluation index.

In terms of equipment design / manufacturing, the fault detection design and industrial interconnection design, improve equipment fault sensationability, status identification and predictive capacity and industrial interconnection; through digitization, automation, modelization, intelligence, informationization and other measures Improve equipment essential safety design level; realize the whole process of refining and chemical enterprises, forming equipment operation status identification and prediction, adaptive planning control and dynamic compensation repair, intelligent maintenance decision, etc. (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 Motoristometer equipment essential safety and reliable and supervision intelligent design frame map

Establish a sound equipment integrity management system, realize the management of full life cycles such as equipment design, manufacturing, installation, operation, maintenance, and scrapping.

At all stages of the full life cycle of the equipment, the risk assessment tools such as RBI, RCM, SIL are implemented, and become formal requirements of national or industry; refining companies must formulate management rules and regulations and supervision.

Using basic technology such as large data, cloud computing and artificial intelligence, breakthrough automatic diagnosis, automatic prediction, intelligent warning and other core key technologies, build equipment integrity management intelligent operation and maintenance decision information platform, and realize data-driven equipment intelligent operation and maintenance decision (See Figure 2).

Figure 2 Data-driven equipment intelligent maintenance decision framework schematic

Mastering the key technology of the health and energy monitoring of refining equipment, establishing a smart control system of the compressor unit, using an expert system to centrally control the refining equipment, use intelligent algorithm to optimize load allocation, so that each compressor unit is operated in optimal conditions, Thereby maximizing operational efficiency. Using large units of anti-surgery optimization control and failure self-healing regulation technology, while enhancing the operational efficiency of the unit, ensuring safe and reliable in the device card.

5. Engineering application cases of refining chemical equipment essentially safe and reliable intelligence technology

Engineering case implementation of the refining equipment in nature and reliability and regulatory intelligence technology [18]. China Petrochemical Group Co., Ltd. has a striker, system alarm, and interlocking malfunction in the 8 years of the catalyst of China Petroleum Chemical Group Co., Ltd., and the main fan has two times during the 2nd-4 months of 2011. Switter drift is closed to 22 ° position to cause system parking. According to incomplete statistics, the average of domestic related units has a minimum of 3 to 5 times a year due to the main fan of Jingya Adjustive mechanism, and the average loss of the system is about 30.4 million yuan. In order to reduce the loss caused by the system discontinuation, ensure the safe operation of the equipment, and the main storm system is safely reliable and intelligent.

(1) Essential security and reliable intelligent supervision object determined

Reliability data and maintenance data statistical analysis showed that the failure probability (PFD) of the main fan conventional electro-hydraulic control system reached 2.5207, while the advanced level control system PFD was only 0.1. The main air machine intrinsically safe and reliable intelligent regulatory object According to this, it is determined that the main fan can be adjustable to adjust the actuator conventional electro-hydraulic control system.

(2) Reliability key influencing factors and personalized re-design

The main factor affecting the reliability of the main fan is that the special valve of the main conventional electro-hydraulic control system of the main fan of the main fan is "blocked, card, drifting" phenomenon, and the intelligence is low. Based on reliability design and fault bionics, the intelligent electro-hydraulic control system with self-diagnosis and self-increasing is developed, and a functional compensatory multi-target electro-hydraulic control system failure self-healing regulation method is proposed. Based on the distribution control system / security instrumentation system (DCS / SIS) platform, the main fan-free self-healing regulation system is developed, so that the failure of the static blank adjustability and adaptive regulatory Get a fundamental improvement.

(3) Essential safety and reliable intelligent supervision renovation

In terms of technical aspects, electro-hydraulic control is realized, and the fault can be detected, and the calibration adjustable actuator valve position lock or running fault self-healing regulation.

In terms of economy, the development cost of intelligent electro-hydraulic control system with self-healing regulation and control is 1.2 million yuan, and the expected earnings of 1,0.03968, according to a reduction of 1 system parking.

In terms of service, the intelligent electro-hydraulic control PFD is only 0.005864; the system realizes online non-stop repair, and the average repair time (MTTR) is not more than 2 h; the design service time limit can reach 3 × 105 h.

In terms of resource, the smart electrohytic solution control operation is 0.47 kW, better than the domestic best level (12 kW), unit crude oil processing power consumption, steam consumption is 0.5%.

In terms of environmental, the reliability of the main fan is significantly improved, and the gas caused by the system is discharged, and the total amount of liquid emissions is reduced by 1 order level.

Sixth, conclusions

This article reveals the connotation and characteristics of equipment essential safety and reliability and supervision intelligence. Reliability Design / Manufacturing, Risk Management, Monitoring Control Intelligent and Informatization is 3 key elements that ensure safe and reliable equipment. Combing the essential safety and reliable development trend of refining equipment, the development of intelligent development: equipment design and manufacturing have developed to intelligent direction, and risk management technology will become an important support for equipment integrity management. Equipment monitoring will develop in the direction of networking and intelligence. Clarified my country’s refining equipment is safe and reliable, and the challenges of supervision intelligence is implemented.

Focus on the future, based on the information physics system (CPS) to implement equipment fully perceived, early fault warning, operating status real-time assessment and intelligent maintenance decision, which is the development trend of equipment essential safety and intelligent supervision technology.